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一首凉州词,越过玉门关:甘肃地名为何那么好听?


更新日期:2021-01-13 09:49:35来源:网络点击:684272
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ben wen yue 4180 zi

yue du xu yao 12 min

tiqigansu,renmenzonghuiyoulianpiandefuxiang。duiyixierenlaishuo,tayiweizhexiangyuquanguodexibeimeishi,kuayusanqianduolidefengwurenqing;zailingyixierendexinli,tazeyiweizhepiaoyaodezhongnianbuhuadeqilianbaixue,fangunzhemangmanghuangshadedamoguyan,yijibianliledouzhuanxingyidegulaochengshi。

gansushengneidechengshi,wulundaxiao,pubiandouyouyigehaotingdemingzi,pingliang、baiyin、tianshui、wuwei、zhangye、jiuquan、dunhuang、yumen……jibianmeiyouquguo,renmenyezongjingyoushifu、shiji、naizhigeyaodexielu,erduizheixiemingzishifenshuren。

gansushengditu,tupianyuanyuwangluo

zheixiechengshijiujingheshideming,weishenmezheixiedimingtingqilaizonghuijijueshiyi,youyouyizhonggupocangliangzhiganni?

初开河西

gansu,weiyuwoguoxibeibianchui,dongxihengguanhexizoulang。xianqinshiqizhongguochufenjiuzhou,gansushuyuyongzhouzhidi。buguo,gansuyuzhongyuanwangchaozhenzhengjianlijinmideguanxi,haiyaowandaoqinhanzhiji。yezhengshizaizheiduanshijian,gansujingneidedabufenchengshiyoulezuichudemingcheng。

zheilizuizaodemingdechengshi,yaoshuyuzhongxian。zhanguoshiqi,zhongguobeifangyoulianggeyuzhong,dongbudeyuzhongzaijintiandeneimengguhuhehaotehebaotouzhijian,ju《shiji》jizai,zhaowulingwanghufuqishe,ershinianzhihougongzhanlezhongshanguo,xiangxigongchenglvedizhiyuzhong,shuodejiushizheigeyuzhong。xibudeyuzhongjijintiangansushengyuzhongxian,qinshihuangsanshiernian (qian214nian) ,dajiangmengtianxiangxiquzhuxiongnu,gongzhanleziyuzhongzhihuangheyanandedifang,bingzaihebianjiancheng,shiweiyuzhong (“xibeichizhuxiongnu,ziyuzhongbingheyidong,shuzhiyinshan,yiweisanshisixian(yiweisishisixian),chengheshangweisai”) 。

buguo,qinmiezhihou,yuzhongzaicibeixiongnubuzugongzhan。yizhidaojiangjin80duonianyihou,qingkuangcaiyoulezhuanji。zheizegushi,haiyaocongxianyinumadeshaonian“zhanshen”huoqubingshuoqi。xihanyuanshouernian (qian121nian) chun,ganggangnianman19suidehuoqubingbeihanwudirenmingweipiaoqijiangjun。shinianchun、xiazhiji,huoqubingliangcilvbingchujihexidiquhunxiewang、xiutuwangbu。dangshidexiongnuzhubu,yijingtunxialeciqianlongchengzhizhan、monanzhizhandebaiguo。

dianshiju《huoqubing》juzhao,huoqubing

zaichunjigongshizhong,huoqubinglvyiwanpiaoqichulongxi,zhuanzhanhexiwuguo,yudanyudeerzijiaozhan。zaiyueguoyanzhishan,6tianzhongjixingjunyiqianduoli。lianxusaodang5gexiongnubuluo,zhanshaxiongnuzhelanwang、luhuwang,jianmiexiongnujunjinwan。jinghuangshicuodexiongnuxiutuwanghehunxiewang,lvcanbutaozou,huoqubingzhuijidaohexizoulangxiduandedunhuangfujin,caishoubinghuiche。

zaixiajigongshizhong,huoqubingyugongsunao、liguang、zhangqianlvlingshuwanqibingfensanlulujinjun。zaigongsunaomiluchidao,liguang、zhangqianbucanbaidejumianxia,huoqubingbingmeiyoufangmangongshi,ershiguoduanjuedinggujunshenru,zaisibiwuyuandeqingkuangxia,xianghunxiewanghexiutuwangcebeifadongtuxi,jiandisanwanyuren。fuluxiongnuwuwang、wuwangmu、danyuyanshi、wangziwushijiuren,xiangguo、jiangjun、danghu、douweiliushisanren,rangxiongnudeshilishoudaoyicijidadedaji。congci,hanchaokongzhilehexidiqu,weidatonglexiyudaoludiandingjichu。xiongnuweicibeige:“shiwoqilianshan,shiwoliuchubufanxi;shiwoyanzhishan,shiwojiafuwuyanse。” (《shiji·weijiangjunpiaoqiliechuan》)

liangnianzhihoudeyuanshousinian (qian119nian) ,hanwudimingweiqing、huoqubinggelvqibingwuwanfenbiechudingxianghedaijun,shenrumobei,xunjianxiongnuzhuli。zaizheiyichangshicheng“mobeizhizhan”dezhanyizhong,huoqubinglvjunbeijinliangqianduoli,yueguolihoushan,duguogonglvhe,yuxiongnuzuoxianwangbujiezhan,jiandiqiwanren,fuluxiongnutuntouwang、hanwangdengsanrenjijiangjun、xiangguo、danghu、douweidengbashisanren,chengshengzhuishazhilangjuxushan (jinmengguguojingneikenteshan) ,zailangjuxushanjuxinglejitianfengli,zaiguyanshan (jinmengguguodezongmotebokeduowulashan) juxinglejidishanli,bingfengyizhibizhihanhai (beijiaerhu)(《shiji·weijiangjunpiaoqiliechuan》:(piaoqijiangjunhuoqubing)zhuanjizuodajiang,zhanhuoqigu,lishelihou。jigonglv、huotuntouwang、hanwangdengsanren,jiangjun、xiangguo、danghu、douweibashisanren,fenglangjuxushan,shanyuguyan,denglinhanhai。) 。

liguang、weiqing、huoqubingchuzhengxiongnushiyitu

suizheyuxiongnudelianzhanlianjie,“xiongnuyuandun,ermonanwuwangting”。hanwudizaihexidiqujielianshexiazhangye、wuwei、jiuquan、dunhuangsijun,eshouhexizoulang。sijundemingcheng,yepoyoujiangjiu:

武威:意为彰显大汉军伍的武功军威。

酒泉:因“城下有泉,其水似酒”而得名。

敦煌:“敦”意思是“大”,“煌”意思是“盛”,就是盛大辉煌的意思,因其广开西域,故而得名。

张掖:意为“张国臂掖,以通西域”,也即张大汉之臂膀,断匈奴之腋窝。

zici,hexizoulanghezhongyuanwangchaodemingyunkaishijiaozhi。

雍凉之地

tiqishicizhongdebiansai,“liangzhou”zheigemingzizongshiraobuguoqu。tangdaishirenwangzhihuancengzuo《liangzhouci》:

huangheyuanshangbaiyunjian,yipianguchengwanrenshan。

qiangdihexuyuanyangliu,chunfengbuduyumenguan。

liangzhouci,shitangchaoshiliuxingdeyizhongqudiaoming,bushaodaguanxiangui、wenrensaokedoucengweiqitianxiechangci,chulewangzhihuansuozuozhiwai,haiyouwanghan、menghaoran、zhangji、luyoudengrendezuopin。

zaichengweiwuweishiyigeputongxianqudemingchengzhiqian,liangzhoucengjingshibaokuozhenggehexizhidizaineidedaxingzhengqu。hanwudiyuanfengwunian (qian106nian) ,weilejiaqiangzhongyangduidifangdekongzhi,chujingshifujinqijunwai,baquanguofenweishisangejianchaquyu,shicheng“shisancishibu”。shisangecishibuzhong,shiyigecaiqule《shangshu·yugong》he《zhouli·zhifang》zhongdeguzhouming, (jizhou、yanzhou、qingzhou、xuzhou、yangzhou、jingzhou、yuzhou、liangzhou、yizhou、youzhou、bingzhou) ,dangaiqizhongdeliangzhouweiyizhou,yongzhouweiliangzhou。erliangzhou,zhengxiangdangyujingansuyidai,yin“dichuxifang,changhanliangye”erdeming。youyinweizhongyaodediliweizhi,erbeichengzanwei“tongyixianyuguangmo,kongwujunzhiyanhou”。

shisancishibuditu,tupianyuanyuwangluo

yuliangzhoudayuetongshidemingde,haiyoudangshideyizhongdifang。

tianshuijunchenghushiyuhanwudiyuandingsannian (qian114nian) 。juchuan,zaisanqianduonianqian,tianshuidiqurenyanchoumi,wuyupilian。qinmohanchu,zhangqidezhengzhanjiashangganhan,daozhiminbuliaosheng。yitianyeli,hurankuangfenghuxiao,leidianjiaojia,yidaojinguangshanyao,dishangxianchuhongguang。dunshi,dadilianxuzhendong,zaihonglonglongjuxiangshengzhong,liekaiyitiaodafeng。zhijiantianshangheshuiqingxieerxia,zhuruliekaidedafengzhong,xingchengyihu,mingyue“tianshuihu”。renshuozheihuyutianhexiangtong,youjiaota“tianshuijing”。houlai,zheigechuanshuobeihanwuditingdaole,tajiujizheilixinshedejun,qimingwei“tianshuijun”。buguo,zheiyezhishiyigechuanshuo,bingwujukekao。

chucizhiwai,haiyouyinwanglaiyushiyunshuerdemingdeyumen (gu“yumenguan”suozai) ;yinguaguoxiangtianerdemingdeguazhou (《hanshu·dilizhi》:dulinyiweiguguazhoudi,shengmeigua。) deng,yeshizaizheiduanshijiandeming。

yumenguanyizhi

zihandaiyihou,baohanhexidiqudeliangzhou,xianhoucengyouqianliang、houliang、nanliang、beiliang、daliangdengzhengquanzaicijianli。buguo,zaizheiqijian,zheilidedimingyizhimeiyoudadegaibian。tongshi,yipixindedimingyezhujianchuxian。

qianqinjianyuanshiernian (gongyuan376nian) ,qianqinhuangdifujianyizhanganmenhugaoping (xianzaidepingliang) weihoufang,libingmoma,yiliangzhuzhangtianxi“suichengfanshouwei,ranchendaoweichun”weiyoupaibingshisanwanjingongqianliang,binglinhexi,chian (linxiahuanghebian) yizhanjianmieliangjunsanwanbaqianyuren。bayuebinglinqianliangdouchengguzang (jingansuwuwei) ,zhangtianxibeibichujiang,qianliangzhicimiewang。shiyipingliangzhimingzhijun,qu“pingdingliangguo”zhiyi,pingliangzhimingshijianshice。

pingliangshi

xiweifeidisannian (554nian) ,gaixiliangzhouweiganzhou (jintianzhangyeshixiaxiayouganzhouqu) ,zhangyejunshuzhibingqiezuoweijunzhi。ganzhouzhiming,gaiyinzheilishanxiayouquanshui,yiganquanquming,yincimingweiganzhou。zheilide“gan”zi,yeshihoulaigansushengmingzhong“gan”zidelaiyuan。

zhangyeshiganzhouqu

zaishuolanzhou,suiwendikaihuangsannian (583nian) ,zhilanzhouzongguanfu。zheiyeshilanzhoudemingzhishi,qijinyijingyiqiansibaiduonian。zaicizhiqian,lanzhouyizhimingweijincheng。zhisuoyigaichengciming,shiyinweijinlingaolanshan,yinerjianchengzuolanzhou。“gaolan”lianggezi,yuanbenshixiongnuyu,qibenyiyijingyinmeibukekao,yourenrenwei“gaolan”jiushi“qilian”,doushixiongnuyuzhong“tian”deyisi;yeyourenweinaishi“heliu”deyisi。

gansuyimingzhong“su”deyoulai,zekeyizhuisudaosuiwendinianjian。renshouernian (gongyuan602nian) ,gaijiuquanzhenweisuzhou。cihou,suzhoujianzhishiduanshixu,zhidao2002nian,caizuizhongquedingcheshi,gaiweisuzhouqu,lishujiuquanshi。

lingtaixianming,zeweituogusuoding,quzhouwenwangfamixuguo,zhu“lingtai”zhiyi。shizhiyusuidayeyuannian (605nian) 。tongyangjutuoguyujinzhiyide,haiyoulongnanzhididejigexianqu。beizhounianjian,jintiandelongnanjingneizhiyouwuzhou (jinwudouqu) 、wenzhou (jinwenxian) 、kangzhou (jinchengxian、kangxian) 、dangzhou (jindangchangxian) 、fengzhoudeguanghuaxian (jinhuixian) 、liangdangxianheqinzhouzhangdaoxian (jinxihexianbeibu、lixianbeibu) 。jintian,longnanshixiaxia8xian1qu (wudouqu、kangxian、wenxian、chengxian、huixian、liangdangxian、xihexian、lixian、dangchangxian) ,qimingchengheqilai,jiwei“wenwuchengkang、lihehuichang、liangdang”。anheshangguxianwangzhiming,youyouduiminfengwuchandeqipan。jinguanzaiqumingzhichubingweikeyiweizhi,danzhangjiuyilaixingchengdeqiaohe,wuyiyechengleduishenghuozaizheiliderenmindeyinqiezhuyuan。

longnanshixingzhengquyutu

“甘肃”以降

ganzhouyusuzhoudeming,shizaisuichaonianjian。liangzhouhechenggansu,zeshizaibeisongnianjian。qishidangxiangrenjianlixixia,yiliangzhouzuoweifujun,yejiushipeidou。youyuhexidiqushixixiazhongyaodeliangshihechumuyeshengchanqu,xixiarenfeichangzhongshizheilidefangyu,yincizaiganzhou (jinzhangye) chenglile“gansujunsi”。buguo,dangshidejunsizhishijunshijianzhi,leisiyujintiandejunqu,erbushizhengqujianzhi。

zhidao1273nian,yuanshizuhubiliexiazhaochengligansuluzongguanfu;1281nianyouzhengshichengli“gansudengchuxingzhongshusheng”,jianchenggansusheng。zheiyang,caiyoule“gansusheng”dedansheng。

yuanchaogansushengditu

daosongyuanzhiji,gansushengneidabufendifangdedimingyijinggudingxialai。buguo,zaicizhihou,rengranyouyixiexindedimingchuxian。

beisongyuanfengsinian (1081nian) ,songjunshoufuxixiagudi,shenzongzaicijiandingxicheng,qu“andingxibian”zhiyi。buguo,songwangchaozuizhongzhibuyuhexizoulang,bingmeiyouzaixiangxituotu。houlai,jinhuangtongsannian (1143nian) shedingxixian。

“qingyang”yiming,quyusongdaizhenghenianjian。songtaizujianlongyuannianzhiqingzhoutuanlian,qiandechuyoushengweiqingzhou。daoyingzongzhipingnianjiangaishehuanqinglu。naihehuanzhouheqingzhoushouzierdeming。zhengheqinian (1117nian) zaiqingzhoushe“qingyangjun”jiedu。“qingyang”zheiyimingchengfangjianyushice,bingyanyongzhijin。

zaicishidemingdechengshizhong,budebutide,shihaocheng“tianxiadiyixiongguan”dejiayuguan,yijiyincierdemingdejiayuguanshi。jiayuguanshijianyumingchaohongwunianjian (1372nian) ,shimingchaozhangchengzuixibiandeguankou。tazuoluoyujinjiayuguanshixi5qianmichuzuixiazhaidejiayushanaikou,chengguanliangcedechengqianghengchuanshamogebi,beilianheishanxuanbizhangcheng,lishishangcengbeichengweihexiyanhou。yindishixianyao,jianzhuxiongwei,youyoulianchuisuoyaozhicheng。jiayuguanyinjiayushandeming,erjiayuguanshiyouyinguanmingerli。

jiayuguan

chucizhiwai,gansudexuduodimingdoushiquziyuyi,yuyijingxiangfanrongguotaiminande“jingtaixian”,renminanjuleyede“minlexian”,yongyuanchangshengde“yongchangxian”,yongyuanandingde“yongdingxian”,renhezhengtongde“hezhengxian”,bianyuanandingde“jingyuanxian”,xifangandingde“anxixian”,minfengchunpode“minqinxian”……buyierzu。

千载思虑

guanyugansudediming,cengjingyouguoyigeyouqudeshuofa——liangqiannianqiandegansurenchuanyuedaoxianzai,dagaiyebuhuimilu。suirangansushengdemingzibianlaibianqu,zhidaobeisongshiqicaidiyicizuowei“gansu”beiquerenxialai,dandaduoshuxianshidemingchengquejibendouwanzhengdibaocundaolexianzai。

bujinshimingzimeizenmebianguo,jiulianbantudemoyang,yeyinweihexizoulangyidaidutedediligeju,baochizhezuichudeyangzi。

lichaolidai,renmenfuyuzheipiantudide,wuyibushianbangdingguodedaguomeng。zheiyangdemengxiang,suizheyiyiguanzhidequmingzhunze,congqinhanshengshiqi,bansuizheneitiaoyouzhangdesichouzhilu,yiluzoudaoxianzai。bingqierengjiangzouxianggengweipengbodeweilai。

参考文献:

simaqian:《shiji》

bangu:《hanshu》

xiangguan:

儿童读物需要分级吗|大象公会真善美、高大全、傻白甜……不一定就是好的儿童读物。文|朱不换每年,大人都会从童书发现貌似令人担忧的「少儿不宜」内容。比如社交网络上轰动一时的《小熊过生日》,到朋友家做客的小鸡变成了烤鸡:千万级销量的《淘气包马小跳》,男一号马小跳同学大谈自杀方法论:影响巨大的「童话大王」郑渊洁,更是常年背负少儿不宜名头,其长篇童话经典《舒克与贝塔》便有贝塔色诱女老鼠关灯上床之类的情节;《智齿》的主角舌吻女主,描述极其细腻;《309 暗室》更是让所有人变成骷髅,令不少家长粗粗一看便焦虑其自家孩子平日都受些什么影响。为什么童书总是这么不让大人放心?令..

那些消失不见的老北京服务行当儿老北京的服务行当儿有很多, 剃头、绱鞋、修理雨伞、磨刀、锔碗、箍漏锅、焊洋铁壶、修理竹门帘等。在过去,这些手艺人大多走街串巷,胡同里的叫卖声连同“响器”发出的各种声响不绝于耳。不过,随着时间的推移,过去司空见惯的老行当儿,如今只能在记忆和文字里找寻。作为一位地道的“老北京”,孟繁强年复一年地写下自己的记忆,讲述着他经历的岁月和变革。本期的京华物语,就来看看他笔下老北京的服务行当儿是什么样的。以下内容选自《老北京故人旧事》,较原文有删节,已获得出版社授权刊发。《老北京故人旧事》,孟繁强著,清华大学出版社2014年12月版。原文作者丨..

梦里的时间和现实中的一样快吗?大多数人都经历过这样的窘境:当闹钟响起的时候,立刻按下暂停开关,缩回温暖的被窝里继续打盹,当我们再次醒来的时候,往往发现时间已经流逝,甚至因此错过了早上去公司的班车,或是朋友间难得的聚会。唉,为什么时间从不歇歇脚,与我们一起打会盹呢?当我们悔恨交加的同时,也会回想刚刚睡着时做的梦。梦里的情景千奇百怪,有些与生活相关,有些是超现实,还有些纯属噩梦。有一个问题一直在那里,却很少被人提起:梦里的时间和现实中的一样快吗?01现实五分钟,梦境一小时梦境中的时间,远比现实时间流逝得更慢。这是我在思考这个问题时的第一感觉。很多时候午后小憩半..

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