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更新日期:2021-01-23 19:49:12来源:网络点击:687283
鲁棒性,鲁滨孙漂流记,鲁滨逊漂流记读后感,复仇者联盟3百度网盘,复位键,复兴号动车组

yueduhuodushushirendeyizhonghuodong。jinguandushuburuwangluoxingqiqianneiyangchonggao,dantazhaoyangbeirenweishimeihaode、xuyaochangdaode。raner,ziyinshuashushishujipujizhijin,dushuyebeirenweiduishentihejiankangyouzheyanzhongweixie,shirenfanyingchidun,duixianshideganzhili、zhuyilixiajiang,zhihuozaixiangxiangdeshijieli。

xiawenneirongjingbeijingdaxuechubansheshouquanjiexuanzi《yuedudeliliang》yishu。zhaibianyoushanjie,biaotifeiyuanwensuoyou。

原文作者|[英] 弗兰克·富里迪

摘编|罗东

《yuedudeliliang》,[ying] fulanke·fulidi zhu,xutao、lisifan yi,beijingdaxuechubanshe,2020nian11yue。

zongguanlishi,daodeyujiankangzhijiandeguanxiyizhishibijiaomohude。daodegaoshangchangchangshitongguoyouliangdeshentishuxingbiaoxianchulaide,erdaodebaihuaizechangchangshitongguochouedeshentibingzhengbiaoxianchulaide。jiangmeijiexiaofeidangzuoyizhongjibinglaiduidaidetaiduyizhiyanxuzhijin。wangyin、xinlichuangshang、fanshehuidebaoliqingxiangyijidanaoderenzhigongnengshousundengdeng,doubeikanchengshitong21shijidemeijieyouguandezhuangtai。yiliaohua——liyongyixuedequanweilaishenshirichangshenghuodeguocheng——zaidangjinshidaichanshengleqiansuoweiyoudeyingxiang,yinweirenleitiyandebuduantuozhanyijingbeizhongxindingyiweiyigexuyaojieshouyiliaoganyudewenti。

yinweishisuhuahekexuedexingqi,renmenchangchangtongguoduixinlihuoshenglijibingdexushu,laibiaodatamendedaodeguanqiehewenhuaguanqie。liru,zuijinjishinianlai,changchangyourentongguoqiangdiaomeijieheyueduduirenshinenglideyingxiang,laipipingmeijiedeguoduliyongyijisuiyixingdeyuedufangshi。zheizhengshijianqiaodaxuedewenxuepinglunjia、xinpipanzhuyizhifulichazi(i.a.richards)deyitu。tayu1929nianshitujiangyueduwentitong“nanlijiezhisixiangdekuaisuchuanbo”guanlianqilai,bingrenweizheizhongchuanbo“chediraoluanlerenleixinzhidewanzhengzhixu,yincikeyishuo,tashiwomendexinlingsangshilekekongxinghelianguanxing,congertuibiandaoyizhongfuqian、cuiruohehunluandedijixingtai”。lichazidanxindeshiduzhelingwu“nanlijiezhisixiang”denengli,erzheizhongdanxinbujinshejixinxiliangguodadelaowenti,erqiehaishejiguodadexinxiliangduiyurenshinenglideyingxiangwenti。

dangran,yuedunenggoujifaxinlideheshenglidefanying。shumianwenbenduiyuxiangxiangdeyingxianglishitasuoteyoudehezhenzhengmeimiaodetexingzhiyi。wenxuepinglunjiaqiaozhi·sitannacengjingshengcheng:“lianghaodeyueduxingweishiyaomaohendafengxiande”,yinwei“takenengshiwomenbiandeduochoushangan”。tabayuedusuoyinfadexinliheshenglijubianmiaoshuweiyizhongjingshenxingdehuoshenmeixingdefanying——qitarenzejihuzongshicongjiankangdeshijiaolaikandaizheiyiguocheng。renmenchangchangcongyixuedeshijiaohuozhelunlideshijiaolailunshuyueduduiduzhedeyingxiang,erzheilidemudezeshitantaozheiliangzhonglunshuzhijiandexianghuguanlian。

qiaozhi · sitanna(george steiner,1929nian-2020nian2yue3ri),wenxuepipingjia。

01

阅读引起情感和身体的剧变

shijiejiangruhetongguoyuedujiqiduiduzhedeyingxiangerjinrurenleidexinlingni?duiciwenti,womenshihennanzhunqueyucede。youguantedingshujiheyuedushijiandezhenglunchangchangjujiaoyushentihedaodedehuati,liru,tamenjiujingshiqidileduzhedexinlinghaishifuhualeduzhedexinling,yijitamendaodishiqiangzhuangleduzhedetigehaishixueruoleduzhedetige。zhengruwomenxianqiansuotaolunguodeneiyang,sugeladibaxiezuochengweiyizhong“yaowu”,chuandichulezheiyangyizhongzhuzhang:yueduyoukenengchengweiyiweiliangfang,yeyoukenengchengweiyijiduyao。

zaixiandaizaoqi,renmencengtongguoshenglixuedejiqinglilunlaijieshiyuedudeyingxiang,erzheizhongjieshiqiangdiaolewenbensuoyinqideqingganfanyingtongduzhedeshenglihexinlijiankangzhijiandeguanlian。jiqingjuyouteshudeyiyi——“tamenshiganxingdelinghun(youshishilixingdelinghun)dehuodong,shilinghunduiganguanyinxiangheqitacijizuochudefanying”——bingqiebeirenweikeyiyingxiangrenleidexingwei,shizhiquxiangyutedingdehuodongfangshi。

xuduozhumingrenwudoucengtongguozijideqinshenjinglitixingrenmenzhuyiyuedusuoyinqideqingganheshentidejubian。tamenbazheizhongjubianguiyinyuyuedusuoyinfadexingfenhefannao,bingqierenweizheizhongxingfenhefannaopohuailetamenduiyuzishenqingganshenghuodezhangkongnengli。zhexuejiahehuaxuejialuobote·boyier(robert boyle,1627—1691nian)quexin,tabenrenconglaimeiyoubaituoguozijizaixueshengshidaiyueduguode“《gaoludeamadisi》zhongdemaoxianchuanqiyijiqitaliqigushi”deyingxiang。boyiershengcheng,zheixiemaoxiangushi“tongguoraoluantadesixiangershanghaileta”,yinweitamen“shitayangchengleyizhongmanyoushidesiweixiguan,yizhitajihuwufakongzhizijidesiwei”。

dianshiju《wodetiancainvyou》dierji(2020)juzhao。

yueduwenbenhelijiewenbendehuodongchangchangbeibiyuchengshentidejinshihexiaohuahuodong。zhidao20shijizhihou,chifandebiyuyiranjingchangyongyuyouguanyuedudetaolunzhizhong。fulangxisi·peigencengjingtichuzhonggaoshuo:“youxieshushikeyipinchangde,youxieshushikeyitunyande,haiyoujishaoshudeshushikeyijujiaohexiaohuade。”taduiyupinchang、tunyan、jujiaohexiaohuadequfenshitonggezhongbutongleixingdeyuedushijianxiangduiyingde。anzhaopeigendejianyi,zhiyoujishaoshudeshujizhiderenmen“qinfenhezhuanzhu”diyuedu,jinerchedidixiaohua。zhengrutazaiyipianpinglunzhongjieshideneiyang:“xiaohua,benshiyizhongduiyouyongchengfenyuyouhaichengfenjinxingdebiyaofenjie,ertaxianzaiyijingchengwei‘qiadangdeyueduhuodong’dewenzixingbiyu。”

zai19shiji,duishujiderenzhenxiaohuabeidangzuoyizhongjiankangdeyuedufangshierdedaotuiguang。deguozhexuejiafulidelixi·nicai(friedrich nietzsche,1844—1900nian)tiyi,renyinggaixiang“niu”chicaoyiyangduisixiangjiayihuanmanerzixidesikao,“jinxingfanchu,zaicijujiao”。raner,dangyuedubeibiyuweiyizhongxinchendaixiedexiaohuaguochengshi,changchangyiweizheshujidexiaofeikenenghuichuxianguoliangqingxing,youqishixinjinchuxiandeyuedugongzhonggengrongyidaozhishujideguoliangxiaofei。zhexuejiayuehan·situerte·mier(john stuart mill,1806—1873nian)duiqisuochushenshidaidechubanyedefeisuzengzhangshenganbuan,tapinglunshuo:xianzaidegongzhong“tantujingshenshiliang,weilenenggoutunyandegengduoerbuxihuluntunzao”e。xuduopipingjiadouzaizhizeputongduzhebujiaxuanzedi“baoshi”shuji;duiyuzheixiepipingjialaishuo,lianjiadejingxianxiaoshuozaidaodecengmianxiangdangyujintiandekuaicanshipin。

18shijidepinglunjiamenduiyudazhongwenhuazhongbujiangjiujingshenpinzhidewenxueshijianbiaoshidanyou,ertamendedanyouchangchangkeyitongmierdeqingxuchanshenggongming。yingguopinglunjiameikaoke(a.l. maycock)yu1929nianshengcheng:“haowuyiwen,jintiandewomendouyuedudetaiduo,yinerjixinlingdelingwunenglishijialeguozhongdefudan;zhengrubaoyinbaoshihuishiyuanbenyouyiyujiankangdeyinshisangshiqiyiyiyiyang,guodudeyueduzhihuifangaiwomendesikao,bingshiwomendesixiangchuyuyizhongchidundehebuhuoyuedezhuangtai。”meikaokexiangbuchuhaiyoushenmebiguoduyuedu“gengweiyouxiaodejingshenzishafangfa”,bingqieyuyan:chufeiwomennenggoucaiqumouxiexingdonglaiezhiguoduyuedudeyingxiang,fouze“dangdaiyinshuapindeqiangdahongliubianhuitunmeiwomen,bingjiangwomenjuanruneilingrenzhenzhandejingshencuoluanzhizhong”。

dianshiju《liaozhai》(1987)shuchipianjuzhao,“shuzhongyanruyu”,shuzhongnvziyiyueerchu。

tongguoxiaohuahuodongdewulileibilaimiaoshuyuedu,biaomingleyizhongduiyuedudedaodepipan。xiangyingdi,ruguoduzheyuedudeshujishuliangchaochulepinglunjiamensuojianyidejiankangyueduliang,bianhuibeizhizewei“tunshishuji”;zheixietunshiwenxuezuopindeduzhehuibeizhikongwei“fanyoulanyongziranzhizui”,erqieqizuixingbineixiejinjinyongshiwu“baweitiandetaiman”derengengjiayanzhong。wenxuepinglunjiayuehan·luosijin(john ruskin,1819—1900nian)weizheizhongguandiantigonglerongzhangdelunzheng,taduiyu“baoshixingyuedu”dejinggaogouchengleyizhongduiweijingxiaohuadeshujixiaofeidedaodepipan。luosijinjiangyuedudeshenmeiweiduyujingshenweiduzhuanbianweiyizhongcunzaiyuyuedudeshentibiaoxianhedaodebiaoxianzhijiandelingrenbuandezhangli,erzheizhongzhuanbianshiyiyizhongyanguoqishidedaodeshuojiaodekouqibiaodachulaide:“weilehuodejingshenshangdeziyang,nibixuyangeanzhaodaodeguifanlaiyuedu,zhengruniweilehuodeshentishangdeyingyangerbixuanzhaodaodezhunzelaijinshiyiyang。”zailuosijinkanlai,yueduyuyinshifangmiandedaodezhunzejinzhirenmenweilezhuiqiuxianglehuomanzuganxingyuwangerjinxingzheixiehuodong。tajieshishuo:“nibunengweilechidekuaileerchi,yebunengweileyuedudekuaileeryuedu。”dantayechengren,zaizhengdangdeqingkuangxia,“nidewancanhenideshuji”doushikeyibeixiangshoude。

zai19shiji,luosijindeguandianzaineixiefanduiliuxingwenhuahedazhongyuedudewenxuepipingjiazhongguangfanliuchuankailai。zhengrukaili·meisi(kelly mays)suomiaoxiedeneiyang,“shenzhizaichifanguochengzhong,ruoshizailixiangzhuangtaixia,genggaojidejingshenliliang——yizhi、lixingyupanduan——yeyinggaiwanquanzhangkongyiqie”,raner,youxianglezhuyihezhuiqiuxianglesuodaozhide“shujitunshixingjing”queyizhileduzhedexiangxiangli。meisijieshishuo:“dangyuedushoudaoganxingyuwangdequshi,erbushichuyuduiyingyangjiazhidelixingkaoliangshi,zheizhongyuedujianghunxiaoshentiyuxinlingzhijiandezhengdangdengjiguanxi。”

zaiguanyuyuedudedaodefengxianheshentifengxiandejieshizhizhong,changchangcunzaizhezheiyangyigejiashe:duzhegenbenwuliqukangjuyinshuawenbenduitamendeqiangdaxiyinli、youhuoliheguhuoli。shujijuyousunhaidaodedeliliang,suoyitamenbixudedaojianguan;erchubanshenhekeyiqidaobaohudaodedezuoyong,jiuxiangweilebaohushentidejiankangerxuyaoduimouzhongchuanranxingjibingdeganranzhejinxinggeliyiyang。yiweimeiguopinglunjiazaipinglun“yinshuapinduyao”deshihouzhichu:yigeliyong“yinhuigushi”lai“duhaishehui”de“angzangzhiren”jiushi“daodefulanwu、wenyiyuanfadiquhemafengbinghuanzhe”,suoyiliyingxiang“xiridemafengbingren”neiyang“zaodaoshehuidepaoqi”。

zaiyipianduiaosika·wangerde(oscar wilde)dexiaoshuo《daolin·geleidehuaxiang》depinglunzhong,zuozheyecaiyongleleisidekouqijiangzheibuxiaoshuozhizewei“yigecongfaguotuifeizhuyideangzangwenxuezhongyanshengchulaidegushi,yibenchongmanledaodehejingshenfubaiwudeechouqixideyouhaishuji,yixiangtantaoruhecongdaodeshangheshentishangduhaiyiweixianhuomeihaodegaoshangqingniandezimingdeyideyanjiu”。

jilupian《shumi》(2014)juzhao。

02

阅读,被视为一种“道德毒药”

luxier·aiermanggeshiyongle“jingshendupin”yicilaibianditasuomieshidechubanwu,erzheizhongshuofayanxulexuduoshijiyilaideneizhongduiwenxuezuopinjiayiyaomohuadechuantong。zaiyouguanyiduanwentideshenxuezhenglunzhong,bashujibizuomouzhongduyaodemiaoshushoufayejiweichangjian。tuomasi·moerjueshizaipengjimouxieguchuizongjiaogaigedewenxuezuopinshi,biancengzhizezheixieshujishi“youkenengrangduzheranshang‘chuanranxingwenyi’de‘zhimingduyao’”;qitapipingjiazeshiyong“daodeduyao”huo“wenxueduyao”zhileidecihuilaitixingrenmendangxinshumianwenbenjuyousunhaishentidenengli。deguozhexuejiaase·shubenhua(arthur schopenhauer,1778—1860nian)ba“buliangshuji”chengweiyonglai“cuihuixinling”de“sixiangduyao”。zuojiaxideni·dake(sidneydark,1874—1947nian)renwei,duiyuxinchuxiandeyuedugongzhongdangzhongdedabufenreneryan,shujixiaofeizhinengqidaoyizhongmazuiyaodezuoyong,bingqie“shujizhibuguoshiyizhongmazuiyao,congzhangyuandeguandianlaikan,tazhongjiuhuixiangkekayinyiyangcuihuizhenshideshengmingheshenghuo”。

daodeduyaojixunqiumanzugandegongzhongdailaideweixianchangchangtongneixiebeishiweiyinhuichubanwudeshujiyouguan。raner,19shijihe20shijidedaodejiamenwangwangduiyinhuijiayikuanfandedingyi,bingqiesuixinsuoyudiliyongyinhuiyicilaimiaoshuchubanwude“duhai”zuoyong。《guanyuyinshuadeduyao》(concerning printed poison,1885nian)yishudezuozheyuexiya·lizidui“yinhui”yu“lianjiaxiaoshuodeelieyingxiang”jinxinglequfen,renweihouzhesuiranbingbu“yidingshiyinhuide”,danyirangouchengleyizhongduishehuideduhai。

cong19shijihouqikaishi,yinhuichubanwuheshanqingbaozhidejuzengyinfaleyuelaiyuedadeguanzhu,duiyuedudeyiliaohuahedaodehuajieshiyehuodeleyigexindefazhanqiji。1880nian,niuyuefanduoluoxiehuifabiaoshengmingcheng:“suichudoukekandao,zheizhongwenxueduyaozhengzaiweijishehuishenghuodegenji。tazhengzaiwuranwomennianqingrendechunjieshenghuohexinling。”weiduoliyashidaidemeiguolunlixuejiaandongni·kangsituokezai1875nianzhuanxiedeyifenbaogaozhongjinggaoshuo,neixiedoushouyinhuizuopinde“jingmingerjiaozha”deshangrenyijing“chenggongdijiangyizhongbingduzhurutianzhenerchunjiedenianqingrentinei,ruguobujiazuzhi,zheizhongbingdujiangbishentilizuizhimingdejibingchanshengchugengdadepohuaixing”,jinerbiaoshi:ruguonengrangwomenguojiadesuoyoulaoshi、fumuhejianhurentingjianwomendeshengyin,womenjianghuihuyu:“yaoyikebutingdixiaoxinshouhunimendetushuguan,nimendeyichu,zixilejienimendehaizihuobeijianhurendetongxinneironghejiaowangduixiang,yimiannimendejiatingdetianmihechunjieshoudaowuranhesunhai。

kangsituokehuyujiazhangchakanhaizidexinjianbingjianguanhaizideyueducailiao,ertadehuyubujinjinbiaodaleweiduoliyashidaiderenmenduidaodewurandegaoduguanzhu。kangsituokeduijiazhangdejianyituxianlezheiyangyizhongjiaolv,jilaoyibeishifouhaiyounengliyindaohejiaoyuzijidehaizijieshoudaodezhixudejiazhi。yuedujiaoyuheertongduxienenglidepeiyangzhisuoyichengweidaodeguanzhudezhuti,shiyinweihaizideminganxinlingrongyishoudaopohuaixingdeyingxiang。

dianshiju《zhengchangren》(2020)juzhao。

jiuxiangluosijinrenweiguodudeyuedubiguoliangdeyinshigengweixianyiyang,renmenrenweizheizhongtongguoyuedulaichuanbodedaodeduyaoyuanbineixiewuzhixingdeduyaogengnengdaozhikepadehouguo。《xingqirikuaibao》debianjizhanmusi·daogelasizichengshiyimingfandui“yingguoxiaoshuodewuranheduoluo”dehuodongjia。tapengjiruikelifu·huoerzhuanxiedeyibumiaoxienvtongxinglianzhegudujingkuangdexiaoshuo《jimozhijing》(the well of loneliness,1928nian),bingshengchengzheibuxiaoshuoshizaixuanyang“duoluo”。taxiwangzheibuxiaoshuosuozhaozhidefennunengposhishehuichengdanqi“jiangzheixiemafengbinghuanzhedemafengbingcongshehuizhongqingxichuqudeshiming”。daogelasishengcheng:“woningyuansongjihaizimenyipingqingqingsuan,yebuyuanyirangtamendudaozheibenxiaoshuo。yinweiduyaokeyishasishenti,erdaodeduyaozekeyieshalinghun。”

ruguoduzheweinengzaiyueduhuodongzhongbiaoxianchuzishendegaoyayijibiyaodexuanzexingheyuedupinwei,jiuhuibeipipingjiamenshiweizaogaodeduzhe。nigulasi·damusicengtichu:weiduoliyashidaideduzhenaishi“xifanglishishangdediyipizaogaodeduzhe”。zheixieduzhebingbuquefajieduwenbendejiqiao,danshitamenquefalianghaodeyuedusuobixudedaodepinzhi。niuyuezhoulidaxuedeyanjiurenyuanzhuyidaolianghaodeyueduxuyao“genggaoji”he“gengchunjie”desixiangxingshi,ranertamenzaixianshizhongjingchangqueshi。yinci,tamenjiangduzhequfenweiliangzhong:jinxingyueduderenheshanyuyueduderen:“meiyitian,yueduxiaoshuodekuangreyijichubanshezhizaochulaidelajiyijilianlajidouburudedongxichongchizheshudianheshifenzhijiudeketing。ranerjinguanruci,tamenbingbushishanyuyueduderen。”zaizheipianbaogaodezuozhemenkanlai,renmenjinxingdezheizhong“yuedu”shijishangzhengshiyizhongduoluodebiaoxian。

dianying《dangxingfulaiqiaomen》(2006)juzhao。

03

阅读医疗化的趋势

xiriduiyuedusuozuochudedaodehuabiaoshuyizhujianjianshao,erguanyutadeyiliaohuayuyanqueriyizengduo,yizhiyurenhexingshidemeijiewentidoukeyitongguoneixieguanyujiankangyingxiangdeshuyulaijiayibiaoshu。ailika·zhanmusi(e.l. james)zhuanxiedesanjuanbendezhunyinhuixiaoshuo《wushiduhui》jiushiyigelizi。ziconggaishudiyijuanzai2011nianchubanfaxingzhihou,tabianrongdengshijiezuichangxiaotushupaixingbangdebangshou;rujin,gaishuyixiaoshouguoyicebingbeifanyichengle52zhongyuyan。

tong19shijihe20shijiderenmenduineixieyimiaoshuxingshenghuoweizhuyaoneirongdexiaoshuozuochudefanyingxingchengjingrenduibideshi,jintianderenmenbingmeiyoudui《wushiduhui》deneirongbiaoxianchuduodadedaodefenkai。suiranzhongduodepinglunjiacengjingpipingguozhanmusizheibuxiaoshuodediliexiezuozhiliangjiqiduinvxingdemiaoxie,ranertamenjinjinshibatadangzuoyouyibuputongdexiaoshuolaijiayipingjia。xifangzhuliushehuiyeduitadechubanwudongyuzhong,yizhiyu《chubanrenzhoukan》(publishers weekly)jianggaizuojiatimingwei“nianduchubanrenwu”,erqiehaiyoushuyibaiwanjideduzheyuanyigongkaichengrenzijiyueduguocishu。shishishang,dangyougaixiaoshuogaibianerchengdedianyingshangyingshi,《wushiduhui》bianchengweiquanguoxingderedianhuati,erqieyoubufengongzhongshengcheng:tamengandaohaoqideshizijinenggoucongzheibudianyingsuozhanshidexingxingweizhongxuedaoshenmedongxi。

conglishideshijiaolaikan,《wushiduhui》zhisuoyinengdedaoshehuidejieshouermeiyouyinfashehuiduiyuqiyingxiangdedanxin,yuanyinjiuzaiyutashiyongleyitaoguanyuxinliheshenglijiankangquexiandeyuyanlaijinxingbiaoshu。zhenduizheibuxiaoshuodeyingxiangzhankaidexueshuxingyanjiufaxian,zheibuxiaoshuodeduzhewangwangtongbuanquandexingxingweihexujiudeng“bujiankangxingwei”youguan:zaitadeduzhezhong,yousanfenzhierderenzaiyishengdangzhongyouwugehuogengduodexingbanlv。

《funvjiankangzazhi》(journal of women's healthy)shangdeyixiangyanjiubaogaozhongzhichu:yuedu《wushiduhui》shixianruyizhonghunluandexingguanxidebiaoxian。zheixiangyanjiusuoyilaidezhengjushi,ciqianmeiyourenyanjiuguo“jiankangfengxiantongyueduneixiemiaoxienvxingshoudaoqinfandeliuxingxiaoshuo”zhijiandeguanxi。yanzheqianrenzaitantaoweitedeyingxiangshisuotichudeneitiaochenjiusilu,zheixiangyanjiugongkaichengren,jingyanzhengjudequefabingbuzuyifangaitazhenduiyuedumouzhongxiaoshuodeyingxiangtichuqiangyoulidejielun:“jinguanquefaguanyuzheiyizhutidejingyanxingyanjiu,danshixuezhemenyiranrenwei,gerenchanghuizaixiaoshuodeyingxiangxiagaibiantamenduixianshishijiedexinnianhetaidu。”suiranzheifenyanjiubaogaodejiweizuozhebuyaneryudixiangxin,yuedumouxieleixingdexiaoshuokeneng“duitaiduhexinnianchanshengyouhaiyingxiang”,danshitamenquexiaoxinjinshendibimianduiqijiayigongkaidedaodepipan。

xianzaidepipingjiamenbiaodazijiduimouleixiaoshuodedanxinchangchangshishiyongyizhongtaolunjiankangfengxiandeyuyan,erbuzaixiangguoqudepipingjianeiyangshiyongyizhongdaodehuadeyuyan。zheizhongqingxiangduiyurenmenkandaiyuedudefangshijuyouzhongyaoyiyi。duxienengliguoquchangchangbeishiweiyizhongdaodeshangdeyoudian,erjinzegengduodibeidangzuoyizhongrenzhijineng。zuoweiyizhongrenzhijineng,yuedubeiboduolesuoyoudaodeshangdekeguishuxing。tahaimianlinzhewenhuabianzhidefengxian。

xiangguan:

安德烈·巴赞:改编电影不纯粹了吗?让我们回到上世纪四五十年代,电影发展之初看看安德烈·巴赞为“改编”这种“不纯粹”电影形式的辩护安德烈·巴赞回顾近10年到15年来的电影发展,不难发现一个日益显著的特征:取材于文学与戏剧。当然,电影从小说和戏剧中发掘素材早已有之,但那时电影的表现形式还是独树一帜的。《基督山伯爵》、《悲惨世界》和《三个火枪手》的改编,不同于《田园交响乐》、《宿命论者雅克》、《布劳涅森林的女人们》、《肉体的恶魔》、《乡村牧师日记》的改编。电影导演只是借用了大仲马和维克多·雨果笔下的人物和情节,但并没有套用小说的文学框架。在电影中,沙威和达达尼昂所经历..

1919年的燕京大学,还不在颐和园路5号从明朝初年北京在现有城址上建成以来,北京“城”已经有了几张截然不同的面孔(图1),和这种形态差别联系在一起的不仅仅是物理建设,最重要的,还是不同历史条件下的社会生活方式。在扩展出二环线以前,北京看上去还不是一块似乎会漫无边际扩展下去的大饼。多少年来,在外来者觊觎的眼光里,它都是黑乎乎的城门洞子里密致模糊的一团——大致说来,一直到民国初年,北京城市的发展还非常局限于那一圈城墙,为城墙铁桶般围定的那座城池里面,人口拥塞,而它的外面却是稀稀落落、发展缓慢的农业聚落,只有西北面得天独厚,坐落着诸多的皇家园林和离宫、庙宇。1900 年庚子之..

怎样才能将文学的触手伸向时代深处?女作家自有回答在这篇特别报道中,我们邀请了北京师范大学文学院教授、茅盾文学奖评委张莉,以 8 位青年女性作家为引,结合她的阅读和持续推动女性写作发展的实践经验,探讨属于这个时代的女性写作,以及它的社会意义。但终究,我们还是要回到阅读中,才能找到答案。谈青年女性写作者的创作,不由想到她们的前辈:张洁、铁凝、王安忆、翟永明、林白、迟子建 …… 这些作家和她们的作品 ——《方舟》《玫瑰门》《永远有多远》《弟兄们》《逐鹿中街》《女人组诗》《一个人的战争》《世界上所有的夜晚》…… 早已构成了光彩熠熠的中国当代女性文学史。当然,在这样的脉络里,不同时期..

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