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1919年的燕京大学,还不在颐和园路5号


更新日期:2021-01-23 19:49:36来源:网络点击:687287
鲁班书,鲁班的诅咒,鲁班锁,复利现值系数,复利现值,复制娇妻

congmingchaochunianbeijingzaixianyouchengzhishangjianchengyilai,beijing“cheng”yijingyoulejizhangjieranbutongdemiankong(tu1),hezheizhongxingtaichabielianxizaiyiqidebujinjinshiwulijianshe,zuizhongyaode,haishibutonglishitiaojianxiadeshehuishenghuofangshi。

在扩展出二环线以前,北京看上去还不是一块似乎会漫无边际扩展下去的大饼。多少年来,在外来者觊觎的眼光里,它都是黑乎乎的城门洞子里密致模糊的一团——大致说来,一直到民国初年,北京城市的发展还非常局限于那一圈城墙,为城墙铁桶般围定的那座城池里面,人口拥塞,而它的外面却是稀稀落落、发展缓慢的农业聚落,只有西北面得天独厚,坐落着诸多的皇家园林和离宫、庙宇。

1900 niangengzizhiluanyihou,youyuzhengzhijunshishangdecanbai,yifangmian,qingzhengfuwujindeguomencongcibudaqingyuandixiangyangrendongkai, zaixiangduipingwendezhengzhijumianxia, zaibeijingdexifangrenyongyoulezuidaquanxiandelvxingziyou,zheizuogulaodechengshibiandeqiansuoweiyoudi“kaifang”;lingyifangmian,yibufenxifangrenduipaojianzhengcedefansheng, dailailegengwenhedejiazhiguanniande“qinlve”, zheiqizhongjijidefangmian, tuchudibiaoxianyutamenduiyubeijingjindaishizhengjianshedegongxian:20 shijichuyilai,xifangrenzaihuashiyedehenjibuzaijinjinshijiaotang、lingshiguanhebingying,yeshiyiyuan、gongchanghexuexiao。

tu1 jinzhongdou,yuandadouhemingqingbeijingchengdedilifangweiguanxi(ziliaolaiyuan:《zhanganjie》)

peking university yumeiguodechuanjiaoshi

1911nianminguojianlihoudebeijing, jiuxiangshiyigechenfengyijiuerturandakaidehezi,zaiyangguangdezhishexia,taneixiechenniandezhuzangxunsubianzhi,youdejiucitubengwajie,youdezefashenglemouzhonghuaxuefanying,xiyinlezheibanneiyangdechongyingfengdie。(tu2、tu3)

tu2 yandaxuanchuanshoucezhongmiaohuidedongbianmen(ziliaolaiyuan:hafodaxuetushuguan)

tu3 xinhaigeminghouzhikangrizhanzhengbaofaershiwunianzhijian,beijingchengdewaiqiaoshumuzuizhongdadaochuangjiludeshuzi(ziliaolaiyuan:hafodaxuetushuguan)

yixiexifangrenfachulezheiyangdegantan:“beijingyijingbiandetaixinle!

1911 nianhoudeshunian,jiushizaizheiyangdelishiqingjinglimian,zhenxingzaihuabeidemeiguojidujiaojiaohuijiaoyudetiyimiaozhunlebeijing,zhongguowenhuadexinzang。tongzhouxiehedaxue(zhanglaohuihegonglihuiheban,1889 nianchuangjian)、beijinghuiwendaxue(weiligonghui1888 nianchuangjian)dezhongzuheqinghuadaxuezhuyaoxiaoshedexingjianyinrenzhumudipaizai1919 nianjianzhudashideshouwei, ertamendouheyigeweimeiguojiaohuiguyongdemeiguojianzhushidemingzilianxizaiyiqi, tajiushibenshudezhurengongzhiyi:maofei(henry k. murphy)。(tu4)

tu4 jianzhushimaofei

对北京的传教士而言, 起先的传教工作重心并不在交通和设施便利的北京,他们的眼光更多地投向北京所辐射的华北,势力所及之处,甚至到达山西、河北的偏僻农村。而在义和团运动中吃了大亏的传教士们也并非单纯的慈善家,他们改造中国人宗教信念的一个重要途径,是利用那时中国人对新学的普遍向往,兴办教育,招纳信众。最初教育的对象主要有两种,一种是穷苦而无法接受正规教育的年轻人,一种是已经加入教会的教徒的子女。

qichu, youyumeiguojiaohuixitongdepangdawuza, zheixianggongzuobingmeiyoudedaomeiguoguoneideqiangyoulizhiyuan。zhangqiyilai,zaiduihuadejidujiaoshiyeshang,chuanjiaoshimenquefagongshi,yemeiyoutongyideyuanjingguihua。yihetuanyundongzhong,tongzhouxiehedaxuehebeijinghuiwendaxueliangxiaojunbeifenhui,zhongyushirenshifenraobuduandeliangxiaohebingtishangyicheng。daoleminguojianlihoudediqigeniantou,ji1918 nian,beijingdemeiguojiaohuigaocengdachengchubuxieyi,zaichengneichengliyisuoxindedaxue,mingzijiunizuopeking university。

“yanjingdaxue” xiaomingzhengshishengxiao

zheisuoxindaxuedemingzidezhongwenfanyishi“beijingdaxue”,hedangshideguolibeijingdaxue(national peking university )henrongyihunxiao,xianranbushigebanfa,shibidezhongxinqiyige。zheikanshangqubushiyigeduodadeshier,queshide1919nianyounanjinglaibeijingshangtanxinxiaoshiyidesituleidengdachileyijing:

woyu1919 nian1 yue31ridaodabeijing……wolikekaishiyishidaozheilianggexuexiaozhijiandefenqibiwoyuanlaixiangxiangdeyaoyanzhongdeduo。huiwenshuyuanbiyeshengdaibiaotuangaosuwo,buguanzheigehebinghoudexinxuexiaoyingwenmingjiaoshenme,chufeizhongwenmingzihaijiao“huiwen”,burantamenjiujujuebatakanchengmuxiao。

wotiyitamenrenmingyigeyouzhongguorenhewaiguorendeweiyuanhui,yizhonglidetaidu,jiuxianzaiweijiejuedewentizuoyigewutiaojiandejueding……

jiuzaisituleidengfanhuinanjing,manyiweiwanshidajiledeshihou,yanjingdaxuededongshimenquejidianrangtazaiquyicibeijing。zaineili,takandaodeyiranshixianzaixiediaowuwangderenshijiufenlidexiaomingfengbo。“qinaideliuhailanboshiqishen,laoleizonghengdishuodao,tayijingshougouleweiyuanhuidezhengchao”——zhongyu,suoyouderendouyishidao,“shuangfangdouyaoduiyuanlaijianchidedongxizuochuxisheng,zhiweizhenggexuexiaodedajuzhexiang” 。

就在这样的遭际下,由诚静怡提议的“燕京大学”这个名字诞生了,在“开诚布公,重新做起”的承诺下孕育着新的转变因子。特聘的校名委员会请到了包括胡适和蔡元培在内的五人团,在1919年,按照他们共同做出的决议,“燕京大学”的校名正式生效,这便是今天北京大学校园的名称“燕园”的渊源。

maosijiandandemingmingwentiqueshidehebingdejihuayidugeqian,zheiduoshaofanyingleyigewenti,neijiushizaihuajiaohuidejiushitizhishangbunenggenshangminguochunianweizhiyixindejumian,ertamenjucudewulizhuangkuanghetamenbaoshoudesiweifangshiyebuwuguanxi。hebingzhihou,yanjingdaxuefenweihubuxiangraodenanbuhenvbu(tu5),liangbufenbieweiyubeijingchengneidongnanjiaodekuijiachanghetongfujiadao,daxuezaoqizhaoshoudexueshengdabufenjuzhuzaizheili,yizhidao1926 nianzaihaidiandexinxiaozhijibenluocheng。

tu5 beijingchengneishiqideyanjingdaxuenvxiao

zaineishihou,xishixuetang,youqishi“daxue”,zaizhongguohaishigexinxianshiwu,meiyourenzhidaogaiweitazhunbeishenmeyangdewulizaiti,zhongguorenbuzhidao,meiguorenyeweibiqingchu。ganggangjinrubeijingchengdemeiguojiaohui,mianduizheiyiwenti,duobanshizulinhuogoumaisirenfangchan,yindijiushigaijianyihehuzijidexuyao,tanbushangshenmexitongguihua。

1919niandeyanjingdaxue, fengbidexiaotiandi

1919 niandeqiutian,situleidengjieshoudeyanjingdaxueshizheiyangdejingxiang:“neiliyouwujiankeshi。yijiankerongyibaixueshengdefanting,youshiyongzheijiandawuzikaihui,yeyoushiyonglaijiangdao。haiyousanpaisushe,yijianchufang,yijianyushi,yijiantushushi,yijianjiaoyuanbangongshi。lingyouwangqiuchanghelanqiuchang。ciwaigangnongdaoshouyizuoliangcengdechangfang,yuanshideguorenjiande,keyigaizuoketangheshiyanshi。” zuizhongnanxiaosuifenweibayuan(yiduyoujiuyuan),qishiyezhiyouzuobangongshi、litang、shitanghejiaoshideyi、er、siyuanyoudianguimo,qiyugeyuandoushichongzuoxueshengsushedejianloujiushipingfang,yuanneimeiwuliangrendaosirenbudeng,tamenfenbuzaifujindehutongnei,yinweifujinyouyigehendadejiushicesuo,weishengtiaojianshikeyixiangxiangdecha。( tu6、tu7、tu8)

tu6 yandakuijiachangxiaozhigeyuanfenbulvetu

tu7 yandakuijiachangsiyuanfenbulvetu(juchenyundunlaoxiaoyouhuiyicaotu)

tu8 yandanvxiaofenbulvetu

zheiyangde“daxue”dekongjianjiegounairenxunwei,tashiyigefengbide、zichengyitongdexiaotiandi,hezhongguochuantongshuyuandewulixingtai(tu9)xiangqubuyuan。1916nian,zaiquanguoguangfanzhaoshengdeguolibeijingdaxueyijingyouyiqianwubailingsanmingxuesheng,1920 nianbianshixianlenannvtongxiao,erqianxiaozhiqiandeyandaxueshengdaduohailaizigedijidutujiating,nannvfenxiao,zhiyounvshengouerdaonanxiaoshangke。1919nian,dangzhumingdehonglouyijingluochengsannianshi,yandadenianqingrenhaixiangzaiyigezongjiaojigoulimianxiuxing;buxiangguolibeijingdaxuedexueshengdaduozoudu,xueshengzhongyijingjiehunshengzideyebuzaishaoshu。

tu9 qianxiandaishehuizhongguochuantongjiaoyujigoudewulixingtai:beijingchengdongnanyuchongwenmenneideshuntianfugongyuan(kejuxiangshididian)yijishuntianfutaixue(guozijian)(ziliaolaiyuan:《shuntianfuzhi》)(1)

yandadexueshenghenduoshishibajiusuideqingchunshaonian,shenghuo、xuexizaiyiqi。(tu10)tamende“daxue”shenghuo,congjiaowuchudaoshiyanshi,congshitangdaoyushi,jinmidianpaizaijucudeshushijianpingfangli:

……dalitangyeshigushidejianzhu,wuzihengao,dishiyanghuide,dongtiankaojigemeiluqunuan, yantongtongchuqiangwai……xinjiandeliangcenglousushe,youreshuiguanqunuan,sanrentongzhuyishi……yuanlaidejiuloufang,loushanglouxiageyousanjianwoshi,liangrengongzhuyifang。zhongjianyougemeilu,yantongtonghouqiang,gongrenjingchanglaitianmei,nazoumeicha(zha)jiluhui,yanhuifeiyang。

tu10 qianxiandaishehuizhongguochuantongjiaoyujigoudewulixingtai:beijingchengdongnanyuchongwenmenneideshuntianfugongyuan(kejuxiangshididian)yijishuntianfutaixue(guozijian)(ziliaolaiyuan:《shuntianfuzhi》)(2)

……liuyuandemenhenzhai,zhiyouyishanxiangxiaohurenjiademenyiyang。pangbianshifuxiaozhanglusidezhuzhai,tazheizhuzhaidemenqueshishuangshanzhuhongdamen,dajiademoyang……zoujinliuyuandemenwangzuozhuan,shiyitiaozhaizhangdexiang,daojintouchushiqianyuan,youyipaifangjian,zaiwanglizoudaohouyuan,yeyouyipaifangjian。meijianfangzhulianggeren,baileliangzhangmubanchuang,yizhangshuzhuo,liangrenduimianzuozhegongyong,shuzhuoshangdiaozheyizhandiandeng,shuzhuopangdeqiangaolejinquzuoshujia,fangle……kebenzidiandeng。dingpeng(peng)shizhihude,qianhouchuanghemendeshangbanjiedouyougezi,yeshiyongzhihushang。dongtianzailiangchuangzhongjian,shengleyigexiaohuolu,yancongcongqianchuanghuohouchuangtongchuqu。

duiyulaiziqianliyiwaidenanfangxueshengmen,beijingyankudedongtianlingrenshengwei。zaochenqilaidaoguanxijianxilian,shuishibinglengde,meiyoureshui;wanshangsuiranshenglehuolu,haishihenleng,youqiguafengdeshihou,fengcongmenfengchuangxichuijinlai,shidefanglidenuanqixingtongxushe,zaifangliyubeigongke、zuowen、xiebaogao,changchangyaopishanghoudeyifu,chuanshangmianxie,fouzeshoujiaobianyaodongjiangle。

……youyitianshendongdewanshang, kuangfengnuhou, menchuanghezhihudedingpeng(peng)gegeluanxiang,wohetongfangjiafuwendoushuile,yiyekuangfengbuxi,woyongbeimengletoushui, buquguanta。diertianqingchenxinglai, juedefangfoshuizaishamoli, woxinlihuaiyinandaowohaizaimengzhong, daolemenggugebidashamoma?wolikezuoqilai, yikanmanbeimanzhendoushisha, yuanlaiwanshangdafengbahoubianxiaochuangchuilexialai, fengshacongdongkaidechuangkouchuijinlai,jihujiangwomaizangle!

zheige“xiudaoyuan”daobingbushiquanwushichu:meilulimiankeyikaobaishu,lushangkeyizhuchidedongxi;wanshangdushu,gengshenrenjingdeshihou,changchangtingjianlaobeijing“luobusaililalehuan”deyaohesheng,xueshengmenjiupaochumenwai,maileqingtianshuangcuideqingluobuhuifanglichi,jushuo,zheizhongluobu“zaimeiqihunandefanglichilekeyishuangshen”。

renmenhuoxunanyixiangxiang,kuijiachangfujindepaozihe,cengqifalexiangxudishan、situqiaozheiyangdexiaoshuojia、huajia,shidetamendezuopinzhongduolejifenshiqinghuayi。kuijiachangshiqiyanjingdaxuezuizhumingde,yezuifusecaiderenwu,moguoyubingxin(xiewanying),congfujianlaidetazaihourendezhuiyizhongzongshi“manyunzhewenrou, weidaizheyouchou,yuyuyoutingliu”dewenyinvshen,yipailixiangdedongfangnvxingxingxiang。( tu11)1922nianyuyanjingdaxuebiyehou,bingxinsuijidaomeiguokangnaierdaxueheweiersilinvzixueyuan(wellesley college)liuxue,xuechenghouhuidaoyanjingrenjiaoduonian。zheiqijiantayiwenmingshi,《jixiaoduzhe》bujinranshifenghuaxueyuezhizuo,dantabixianeigankuiyuluanshide“qiumeidexinling”conglingyijiaodudaochulebeijingchengneideyandadejingyu。

tu11 nianqingshidebingxin(xiewanying)

一方面, 墙外是“令人呕吐的臭味和不堪入目的街景”,“大街上晴天布满灰尘,雨天遍地泥泞,而且到处是人畜粪便。露天的水沟散发出难闻的气味,地下阴沟里的臭水又浸漫到街上来”;另一方面,学府内的温馨社区和杂乱的周边又形成了鲜明的对比,尤其是“女儿国”的女校,“楼上楼下前面都有走廊和很美丽的栏杆”。 “佟府夹道校内师生不多, 教员和学生相当接近……(教授)住的院落多是很幽美, 墙上爬着紫罗藤(紫藤萝),有的有圆门,各院都不同,好像置身在红楼梦的大观园内。”

“daguanyuan”!zheishigeqingmodezhongguorenbumoshengdeyinyu。shishishang,weiyudengshikoudajiedetongfujiadaozhengshijiuridewangfu。tongfu,jiushitongguoganghetongguoweixiongdidexirifudi,yigeshishunzhichaodexiaokangzhanghuanghouzhixiong,anbeijiangjun,yigezeshineigedachen,kangxidexiaoyirenhuanghouzhifu。zaiwangqian,tongfuhaicengshimingchaojianchenyansongzhiziyanshifandejiuzhai。zheigepobaidedaguanyuansuijiren“guseguxiang”zhigan,quebunengwanquanmanzuyisuoxiandaidaxuedexuqiu,qishenzaijisuosiheyuanzhongdeyanjingdaxuemianqiangdushanqishen,queguimoxiaoeryingxiangyouxian。

diyirenxiaozhang situleideng

zaozaixiehehehuiwenhebingzhichu,suoyoutuoshibu(board of trustees)degaocengjiudouyishidao,xuexiaodebizejiangshizanshide,xindeyanjingdaxuejixuyigexindewulizaitilaizhichitadefazhan。danshi,chulecaizhengshangdeshijikunnan,wentihaizaiyuzhangqimeiyouyigeqiadangderennengzonglanquanju。baokuohengli·w.lusi(henry w. luce)zaineidedaduoshuren,suiranzaijiaohuipijingzhanjidezaoqishiyezhongjileilefengfudejingyan,quebuzhidaoruhezhidingyigegengjukaichuangxingdegongzuofangzhen。

所有人都清楚,燕京大学校长的职位是一个烫手的山芋。没有来自美国的充分支持,没有可以参考的成功先例,没人知道这条路会不会通往成功。怪不得司徒雷登抱怨说:“我接受的是一所不仅分文不名,而且似乎是没有人关心的学校。”

yanjingdaxuezuizhongxuandinglesituleideng, congyanjingdaxuezaihoulaisanshinianjianduizhongguodeyingxianglaikan,situleidengshiyigeduyiwuerdexuanze。tazaizhongguoduguotongnian,youbeisonghuimeiguojieshouzongjiaojiaoyu,shuodeyikouliulihanyu,shigeshuxiliangbianqingkuangde“zhongguotong”。

henduorendagaibuzhidao,nianqingdesituleidengduiyuzhongguodechuanjiaoshiyebingmeiyoutebienonghoudexingqu,daxueqijianyidushitutaobihuidaozhongguoqugongzuo;danshi,yidanzuochulexuanze,tajiugandeyuanbiyibanrenchuse。situleidenglishuyunanfangzhanglaohui,xinjiaojiaerwenpaideyizhi,tashenxin“jibendezongjiaozhenliyuchuanbojiaoyisuocaidefangshi,keyixiediao”。zheiyibeijingshidesituleidengzaisixianglaopai、xingshifangshichenjiudeyibanchuanjiaoshizhongyuzhongbutong。duiyuxinjiaotuhetianzhujiaotudebutong,makesi·weiboshuoguozheimeyijuhua:“jiu‘fengshiyuanshuibukejiande’zheigewentieryan,xinjiaotukesuanjiaoxihaofengshi,tianzhujiaotuzepianhaoanshui。”ersituleidengxianranshiyigexihaofengshizhe。

situleideng

1919 nian,zaihuabeidemeiguojiaohuidaxueyuhebingzhihouxunqiuyige“congtouzuoqi”de“xin”xiaozhi,yanjingdaxuepinrenzuofengkaiming、yanguangminruide“xin”pairenwusituleidengweixiaozhang,beijingxijiaoyuyiwangjiaohuixuexiaojieranbutongdeyanjingdaxue“xin”xingxiangqueli,zheijijianshikanshangquchunshulishijiyudeqiaohe,danruguowomenlianxiangdaozheiyinianfashengdezhongdalishishijian,youqishiyiwusiyundongweikaiduande“xin”wenhuayundong,jiuhuifaxianyiqiebingfeiouran。

1919 年,在去北京考察的路途上,司徒雷登在天津造访了时为私立南开大学校长的张伯苓,另一个“热诚的基督教徒”。司徒雷登向张伯苓提到了学生运动中蕴含的基督教教育的巨大前景,他希望他的朋友和他一样可以意识到“学生运动的令人惊愕的重要性……学生们出色地组织了抗议活动,保持克制、秩序和热情”。“在运动中其他处所的学生将注目于北京学生的领导作用。这给了我们基督教大学巨大的机遇,以服务于中国历史上空前的危机。”

“ruguowomenbunenghuanqi(womendexuesheng)duicuowuheyapodezenge,yijiyingxiongdeaiguozhuyihefuwujingshen,womendechuanjiaojiaoyushiyejiangguiyushibai”——zheizhongzhenfenrenxindeyuanjingwuyishituidongxindeyanjingdaxueguihuadeyigezhongyaodongli。xinxiaojiansheguranjiyushijixuyao,eryishixingtaideyuanyinyetongyangguanjian,duiyuyigeweiyugulaozhongguodewenhuazhongxinde、quanxindemeiguojiaohuijiaoyujigoulaishuo,neizhongxinxingde“jiaohuixuexiaohezhengfuxuexiaozhijianyouhaodehezuoguanxi”,wuyihuixiangsituleidengsuoshuodeneiyang,shiqi“judadejiyu”。

buguo,congwomentaolundezhuti,yigeshizaide、youzheshijianhekongjiandeshangxiawendexinxiaozhilaikan,haiyouxuduodeyiwaiheouranzaidengdaizhesituleideng。

本文节选自

《congfeiyuandaoyanyuan》

zuozhe: tangkeyang

chubanshe: guangxishifandaxuechubanshe

chupinfang: xinminshuo

chubannian: 2021-1

xiangguan:

《人的疆域》:在片段中开拓的精神世界英裔德语作家卡内蒂被视为20世纪第一位文学大师。他的思想成就辐射了文学、政治、哲学等领域。《人的疆域》是他1942年至1985年间的笔记合集,包括《人的疆域》《钟表的秘密心脏》《苍蝇的痛苦》《汉普斯特德补遗》。在笔记中卡内蒂扩展了自我的精神体验,对小说、生与死、艺术历史、当时的政治、伦理学等都有涉及。这些碎片式的笔记,组合成一幅完整的道德地图,而卡内蒂在其中寻找着人类灵魂的真实与脆弱。它所回应的问题既是空旷的,也是永恒的,因为人类的困境总是如车轮般反复循环。如果说,意识到虚无的本质是作家们的立脚点,那由此诞生的思考则是一条由智慧与勇气..

《记忆记忆》书评: 一曲吟唱冰人夏绿蒂《记忆记忆》是俄罗斯诗人、作家玛丽亚·斯捷潘诺娃耗费三十几年的时间创作的一部史诗级作品,2017年一经问世便引发轰动,先后包揽2018年三项文学大奖——“大书奖”、“鼻子奖”以及“亚斯纳亚-伯利亚纳”文学奖下设的“读者之选”。玛丽亚·斯捷潘诺娃将《记忆记忆》的体裁定为“浪漫曲”,书中抒情的腔调由不同质的材料组成:充满批判性的书评、深邃的哲学思考、对犹太民族的怜悯、波澜不惊的家庭史背后的隐秘,所有这些共同演绎出浪漫曲中的片片思绪。幸运的是,中文版译者李春雨很好地掌握并传达出了这种音乐性。冰人夏绿蒂,幸存者种族的代表,就像我的亲人——关于..

“我定有缺点 定是古怪的人”豆瓣有个短评,说“好多卑微者的情诗啊,不过我喜欢”。卑微吗?或许。又或者不是卑微,只是年轻……诸事都不能确定。比如这首《……是自由》:有那么一些瞬间:我认为一切都是真的。曾发生过者,毋庸置疑。河水倒流。雷峰塔坍塌你终会爱我,而真正的情感取之不竭。有那么一些瞬间。‍‍2011.8.2当年为什么轻信,为什么失望,为什么热情,为什么写诗?好多也已经忘了。‍‍‍——by 文珍以下诗歌都摘自作家文珍的诗集《鲸鱼破冰》,其中有2首算是豆瓣网友所说的卑微者的情诗,我猜。但文珍的诗最动人之处还是在于写出了我们的弱点吧,那些我们害怕的,我们渴望的,以及我..

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