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为什么很多人不喜欢妙玉?


更新日期:2021-01-23 19:49:47来源:网络点击:687289
鲁班锁,鲁班,鲁肃过蒙屯下,复制娇妻,复制快捷键,复制粘贴的快捷键

miaoyu,zuoweishierjinchaizhengcezailiedeguniang,wuyishizuitebiedeneige。tajibushijiafudezhouliqingu,yebushijiafudezuoshangke,tabushizhuren,yebushipuren,tashiyuhongchenwanglaizuigegeburueryishidulidecunzai。

miaoyudepancixiedao,“yujiehecengjie,yunkongweibikong。kelianjinyuzhi,zhongxiannaonizhong。”miaoyuyinshenglaijiuyoudebingdaifaxiuxingyufomenercongciyuanlishisu,kemiaoyuzhongjiuyebushisengren,suoyitafeisengfeisuqueyousisengsisu,“yunkongweibikong”。

ertadequcijingjiao“shinanrong”——

qizhimeirulan,caihuafubixian。tianshengchenggupirenjiehan。nidaoshidanroushixingshan,shiqiluosuyan;quebuzhitaigaorenyudu,guojieshitongxian。ketanzhei,qingdenggudianrenjianglao;gufule,hongfenzhulouchunselan。daotoulai,yijiushifengchenangzangweixinyuan。haoyisi,wuxiabaiyuzaonixian;youhexu,wangsungongzitanwuyuan。

zheiyiqushicaoxueqinduimiaoyuzheitiaogushixianjirenwupinxingdegaodugaikuo,qishicongqucimingwomenbiankeyikanchumiaoyuzheigeguniangzaizheidaguanyuanzhongshiponanxiangchushenzhishishisuonanrongde。

ercongcizhongwomenhainengzhaoxundaogengduoyiju——tasuiranqizhirulan、caihuaguoren,danquegupiqinggao、guoyubiaobanggaojie,minglianlidouxianqipangren“zang”、“su”。

shiwenzheiyangdeguniang,huanzuoshini,ninengxiangchudele、xihuandelaima?

yumiaoyuzuoleshinianlinjudexingxiuyanshuomiaoyupiqifangdanguipi,chenglebusengbusu、bunanbunvdeyangzi。yunvziqinjindebaoyupingjiamiaoyu“weirengupi、buheshiyi,wanrenburutamu”。xianglaibeirenyilunkebodeshiwaixianshulindaiyuzaimiaoyuneiliyeshoulechaofeng,queyin“zhitatianxingguaipi,buhaoduohua,yibuhaoduozuo,chiguocha,bianyuezhebaochaizoulechulai。”erliwanzezhijiezaizhongrenmianqianbankaiwanxiaodishuota“keyanmiaoyuweiren”。

rucikanlai,daguanyuanzhongdezhujiaomendouduimiaoyuxinyouqiqiyan,neipangdeyiganrenjiugengbuyongshuole。

tiaochuhonglouyimenglengyanguanzhi,yeyouxuduorenbingbuxihuanmiaoyu,zhihushangshenzhiyouge“weishenmeyourentaoyanmiaoyu”zheiyangyigeliulanlianggaoda44wan+dehuati。

yourenbuxihuanmiaoyuguzuoqinggaodeyangzi。

yourenshuomiaoyutaiyougongjixingle。

yeyourenshuomiaoyudejiejiguanniantaiqiangle。

erzuigaozandehuidarenzhenzongjielemiaoyusangebutaorenxihuandeyuanyin。

shouxian,yumiaoyuxiangchushizaishibudarongyi。

qici,miaoyucirenxingshishaoweixiandeyouxiexujia。

zuihou,miaoyuhaodaisuanshibangechujiaren,taquemeixuedaofojiasejishikong、wuzhuojiputidejingsui。

……

zongzhi,zaihonglouneiwai,miaoyuhaoxiangdoubusuanshitebieshouhuanyingdeguniang。

keshi,zuoweiyiweibeiwangfurenliyuerlaidaojiafujijudemiaolingshaonv,miaoyujishiliwandeduizhaozu,youshixichundecanzhaoxi,haishidaiyudezhongxiangzhiyi。yongyouzheiyangrenshedemiaoyu,daodiweishenmehui“shisuoburong”ni?

womenhaidecong《hongloumeng》zhongxunzhaodaan。

追寻妙玉的生命轨迹

miaoyuzailaidaojiafuzhiqian,yijingduguoleshibanianderensheng,bingfeiyizhangbaizhi;bingqiezheishibaniandeshengminglvchengjibushipingshunruyitiaozhixian,qizhonggengbaohanlexinggeyangchengdeguanjianqi。yinci,ruoyaolejiemiaoyudexingqingtezhi,jiubixuzixizhuizongtadeshengmingshiyijiqijianjinglisuochanshengdeyingxiang。

一是俗家时期。首先,妙玉出生在苏州的一个读书仕宦之家,是为王夫人所谓的“既是官宦小姐,自然骄傲些”。这个精英阶级必然重视女儿的教育,因而妙玉“文墨也极通”,具有相当的高雅文化涵养。其次,从父母不惜花费巨资买了许多“替身”代替她出家,以期救治与生俱来的疾病,可见妙玉自幼便是深受疼爱的掌上明珠,正所谓的爱如珍宝。

ruciyilai,chushenshangcengjieji,shenshouchongaihehu、yongyouboyadegaodengjiaoyu,yinerxingqingshang“ziranjiaoaoxie”,bianbujinhehuqingli,yerushidaochumiaoyuxinggedeyigezhongyaochengyin,wangfurendetuilunkeyishuoshishenangezhongzhilideyoudezhijian。

二即出家时期。妙玉虽然入了空门,却也并未真正地完全剃度。并且,妙玉出家后的修行之所并不是人迹罕至的荒山野岭,而是香火鼎盛的名寺宝刹。这样一个名寺,理应也是父母费心苦寻的殊胜宝地,以妥善安置幼弱的掌上明珠。因此出家后的妙玉在蟠香寺的十年光阴,应该是平静自如的。因此,妙玉即使出了家,依然是在一种自我发达的状态里,维持了“官宦小姐自然骄傲些”的性情,也算是一种独特的际遇。

三是京城时期。十七岁的妙玉终于离开了蟠香寺这个安全的庇护所,到了以长安为代名的北京,而她也只有在师父圆寂后才开始感受到一些现实压力,所谓的“不合时宜,权势不容”,便是妙玉遵照师父嘱咐留在北京时所出现的紧张冲突。一般而言,人如果经历过重大挫折,个性多多少少都会有所改变和收敛,但由于妙玉很快便得到王夫人的高规格礼遇,所以这段产生现实压力的时间太过短暂,从而并没有对她的性格发生影响,使她依然保有“侯门公府,必以贵势压人,我再不去的”之类的兀傲不屈。

四为贾府时期。就像所有的金钗们一样,在贾府尤其是大观园的生活堪称是生命中的黄金岁月,妙玉也是如此,不仅她的高傲性格获得了充分发展,以至于走向极端,人生中所有值得眷恋的故事都是在此发生。

五即流落时期。失去了父母的羽翼、师父的保护、贾家的庇荫,赤裸裸地在人海茫茫中独自暴露于风吹雨打之中,无所归依的妙玉为了生存下去,只能大幅改变原来的性格而“屈从枯骨”,委身于老男人为妾,从此进入到人生的黑暗期,大观园的梦幻岁月只能追忆、不可复寻。

品茶折射出的等级惯习与文化排斥

disishiyihuiguanyuqingdanqingfudemingchayiduanyinhanlezhongduoxunxi,shijishangciduanzuinengzhanxianmiaoyushenweiguanhuanxiaojiedejingzhishenghuo,yenenggouchengxianchumiaoyuzuizhuyaodexinggetezhi。

shouxian,miaoyuyulongcuianzhongshouzangledaliangzuyizhuanjudianzangdegudongjingpin,dandanshichabeideqingdanshang,jiubaokuolejijiamudeyigehaitanghuashidiaoqitianjinyunlongxianshoudexiaochapan、yigechengyaowucaixiaogaizhong,jibaochaideyizhipaojia,jidaiyudeyizhidianxi……dengjingpin。erpengchadeshuigengjiangjiudaolefeiyisuosidedibu,lianzhaodaijiamuerqiejiamuyejieshoude“jiunianjuandeyushui”doushubukan,zhiyou“meihuashangdexue”cainengrukou,xianranshiqipizhijidemingshizhiliu。

jiucieryan,zheiguranshuominglemiaoyujishichujiajinruzongjiaoshijie,yiranhaibaoyou“dushushihuanzhijia”dechushensuoxiangyingdejingjitiaojianyuwenhuapinwei,weiqichenxinweiduandeyigezhengming,qizhongshejirendeshehuichujingduixinggebingfudeshenkeyingxiang。

ziweiboyilaideshehuixuechuantong,renweitongguojiaoyuhuowenhuajianliqiweiwangde“diweiqunti”,tamendetequanjutihuazaifalvyujingjishang,bijingjijiejilaidegengweizhongyao。bingqie,zaijiaoyuyuwenhuazhongsuosuzaodegaoyapinweikeyu“yongsu”quge,shiweishenfenqugedegongju。

jucieryan,zhenzhengjiangrenmenqugefenchugaoxiadebushicaifu,ershijiaoyuhuowenhua,bingqieyoucisuoxingchengdeshehuidengjiduirendegezhongyingxiangcaishigenshendigu,zhongqiyishengnanyigaibian。congzheigejiaodusikaomiaoyudezuowei,jiukeyifaxianqizhongdeyiyibingbuzhishixinggejiepiyoubunengwangsuzheimejiandan。

gengshenchendishuo,chushen“dushushihuanzhijia”demiaoyu,ziyouyiguanhuanxiaojiejiaoyusuoxingchengdexinggehanyang,yijingxingchenglegenshendigudeguanxi,zuoweiyizhong“shengcundefangshi”,ta“shiyitaobingxingxitong,cushixingdongzhutiyimouzhongfangshixingdonghefanying,yejiushirenmenzhijuehejianshangdejimo,yiqiexingdongjunyoucieryansheng。zheizhongshengcunxintaishizaitedingdelishitiaojianxia,gerenwuyishineihuashehuijiegouyingxiangdejieguo,tebieshitedingshehuizhongjiaoyuxitongzaigerenyishideneihuahexiangzhengjiegouhuadejieguo”,ermiaoyuguoranyemeiyoucongneixiezhijuehejianshangdejimozhongtaoli,jiashangjishichujiadoushoudaozunzhongshenzhiyoudai,jiugengwuxugaibian。

yushihu,xiangjiaoyujiafudexiaofeiyupinweiyidingchengdurengshuyu“zunguizhedeyiwu”,shizaishehuijianduzhixiadebudeburan,zemiaoyushenweichujiaren,queyiranjiangrichangshenghuoanpaideyourushangcengshehuidemingliuyashi,zexianranlingwaihaiyouteshudexinliyuanyin。neijiushimiaoyujieyibiaozhengshehuifencenghuazhixia,zijishenweishangcengshaoshuyongyoutequandediweiqunti,yiteshudexingweimoshihepinweigediaolaizhangxianchonggaodeshehuidiwei。erzheiyidian,rengranshitayongyibiandisuzhongdeyizhongfangshi。

槛外人:高下之别的自我强化

miaoyusuoyaoweixidebujinshiyibanyiyidegaojiexintai,ergengshiyaogongguyizhonggaoyashenfendezitai,mudeshijianliyuzhongbutongdechaosudiwei,diwuhuirenwupancizhongsuoweide“taigao”“guojie”zheilianggeyongyudeshencengyiyiqishishizaizheili。huanjuhuashuo,miaoyudegaojiebingfeigaochaodepinde,ershijiejiyishixiademuzhongwuren。

zheizhongzhiaodijianliqilaiderenwoquge、gaoxiazhibie,miaoyuhaizijuedikeyiyigezhongfangshijiayiqianghua,lirudiliushisanhuisuozaidemingtieshuming“jianwairen”yishi——

yuanlaishiyizhangfenjianzi,shangmianxiezhe“jianwairenmiaoyugongsuyaokoufangchen”……kantaxiazhe“jianwairen”sanzi,zijijingbuzhihuitieshanghuigeshenmeziyangcaixiangdi……

kejianmiaoyudezuofashishu“guaidan”,zheishiyinweizaishehuijiaojihuodongzhong,mingtie、baitiedoudaibiaobenren,shuyuyizhongzhengshidewenshuxingshi,yincibixuqianshuzhengshixingmingyishizhengzhong。ermiaoyujingranjiashang“jianwairen”zheigeewaidezicheng,congyibanlisulaikan,shishubudetiyiji,yincibaoyuyanmotibixiehuitieshi,kanzhe“jianwairen”sanzisisuobantian,rengbuzhiruhexiabi。

zaicibixuzhuyidao,miaoyuzaimingtieshangxiabiehaode“guaidan”zuofa,bukenengshichuyuwuzhihuobuxiaoxindeshulou,erbiranshikeyiweizhi。zuoweidushushihuanzhijiachushendeguanhuanxiaojie,miaoyuzibixianshuyujingyingjiecengdegezhonglishujiaoyang,youshijiafuxiatieziyaoqingcaishoukenqianlaide,lianbeitajiaoshoudexueshengxingxiuyandouzhidao“conglaimeijianbaitieshangxiabiehaode”,miaoyuzijigengbukenengbuzhimingtiedezhengshiguige,zuzhengzheiyangdezuofawanquanshiyizhongzijuedebiaoxinliyizhiju。

youciyekeyituice,miaoyuzaishifusihouduziliuzaijingdoushi,yinggaidoushibiaoxianchuzheileilingrengandaochufandejuzhizuofeng,yizhiyu“buheshiyi,quanshiburong”。baoyuzhisuoyimeiyoujuedeqingmanwuli,yizeshijiyuduinverdezhenzhongaixi,nenggoujieshougezhongguaiqidegexing,shenzhijiyukuanrongyuxinshang;yizeshiganshoudaomiaoyusonglaibaitiedefeichangxinyi。

bijiaoqilai,miaoyudeguaidanbuweizhengtongpaidebaochaisuorenke,daiyuzexiangduijiaonengjieshou,yinweidangbaoyujilixiangyaoyiqirenzhidaojiayihuibao,yimiandichuduifangshi,jiexialaibianqianwangxiaoxiangguanqiuzhu。lutushangqiahaoyudaoxiuyan,shizhixiuyanyumiaoyushibanshibanyoudepinjianzhijiao,yushibaoyuruhuoganlin,xunqiuzhidianmijin。

gujiaojiuyouguoranlejiezuishen,xiuyanduimiaoyuziqubiehao“jianwairen”deyuanguzuolezuixiangjindejiaodai,yezaidushuominglemiaoyudechaosuqueranshiyizhongzijuejianchidezitai。qizhong,suowei“gurenzhongzihanjinwudaitangsongyilaijiewuhaoshi”deshuofa,jiangtaoyuanming、xielingyundoujiayimodao,lianwangwei、libai、dufuyedoubeifouding,yudaiyujiaodaoxianglingxueshishisuojiyudedianfandachangfandiao,qizhuguanchengdudadaojiduanpianpodedibu。

miaoyuduiyushidebaobianqishidoushijingguogerenzhuguanquanshizhihoudechuangzaoxingdingyi,zaiduanzhangquyideqingkuangxia,cihuideshiyongyebeizhuanhuaweiyuyuanyiyoubiedeteshuzhishe,bixucongmiaoyuzijidebiaoshumailuocainengdedaozhengquedelijie。

yi“zongyouqianniantiemenxian,zhongxuyigetumantou”eryan,beimiaoyuqinglaiyoujiade,bingbushishengmingdewuchangduanzanyumenghuanpaoying,congzhonglinglvecunzaidexuhuanerpochuduishengmingdezhizhe——zheicaishifanchengdadeyuanyi;queshipianmiandidanduzhaiqu “tiemenxian”degejueyixiang,bingqiejiangqiyuanbenzuoweishijianshang“shengsizhige”deyiyizhuanhuaweikongjianshang“shijianyushiwaizhige”deyongfa,yiyushirenhuafenjiexian, “jianwaizhiren”dezihaojiuqingchushuominglezheiyidian。

zaiyitacong《zhuangzi》jielai zichengde“jiren”laikan,budanmiaoyuzishendexingxiangyuneixiejirenwanquanbufu, qixinlingdequxiangyebeidaoerchi,congxiuyansuomiaoshude“taruotiezishangshizicheng‘ji ren’de,nijiuhaitage‘shiren’。……niqianzijinaishizhongraoraozhiren,tabianxile。rujintazicheng‘jianwaizhiren’,……nirujinzhixia‘jianneiren’,bian heletadexinle”,kejiansuoweide“jiren”,zhenzhengdeyisishi“shiren”“shizhongraoraozhiren”deduilimian,shi“chushizhe”zhiyi,zhengyu“jianwaizhiren”de yongfawanquanyizhi,zhongdianzaiyu“chaotuoshisudeqinggao”,yuzhuangzibixiaxingyouyurenjianshizhong、zangshenyuchouguaicanxingdezhizhedaweijiongyi。

huanyanzhi,miaoyusuoxiaideshijuyuzidingdebiehao,qishidoubushidui“dao”huo“zhenli”detuichongyuzhuiqiu,yebujuyouzhenzhengdeziwochaoyue,fandaoqiaqiaxiangfan,neishizaishisudedengjiguanniangengweigonggu、chabiexinyuchabiedaiyudougengweiyanzhongdeqingkuangxia,yizhongziwobiaoju、keyiyuzhongbutongdegaoaozitai。yijiaojinde“chaosu”laibiandibieren,“shisu”jiuchengweitataigaoziwodedianjiaoshi。

栊翠庵的自由伸张

yourubolanxuezhejian·sitelilaodeqizhixinlixuesuozhichu:“ruguoyigerenjingchangbuduandixuanzeyidingqingjinghuohuodong,yiduanshijianzhihoujiuhuichanshengyidingdexiguan,yidingdexingweimoshi,batamenfanhuadaoyidingdeqingjingyuxingweizhong,jiukeyichengweirengejiegoudechengfen。”

congzheigejiaodueryan,miaoyude“tianxingguaipi”zhisuoyinenggouyiguandixingcheng“guaidan”derengeneihan,queshizhutinengdongxingdeyunzuo。dangengyinggaizhuyidaodeshi,ciyixinggefazhandehuanjingyinsu。

jiucibixushuo,daolejiafuzhihoudemiaoyu,caichongfenkaizhanshenzhijinyibufazhannei“jiaoaoxie”dexiaojiepixing,jiafuyouqishidaguanyuan,bujinjienalemiaoyu“buheshiyi,quanshiburong”dexingge,gengshizhuzhanglemiaoyulvxingfangdandeziyouhuanjing,longcuianzeshitadegerenwangguo。

shouxian,daguanyuanyijingyinweiyuanfeishengqinerchengweihuangjiajindi,suiyinyuanfeidehaoyieryoutiaojiandikaifangjiyiganshaonvjinzhu,danjuefeiqitadedengxianzhibeisuonengranzhi,zheiyijingshidiyicengcidedaguolv;qici,zheixieshaonvmenjishiruzhudaguanyuan,rengranyidingchengdudishoudaojiazulunlidezhiyue。jiucieryan,daoguankeshuoshidiercengcideguolv,congerlongcuiangengshiyishiduli,miaoyucainengyiwuyibangdihengkongchushi,jiduanfazhanziwogexing。

jinyibushuo,longcuiangengshishoudaozongjiaodebaohu。longcuianzangshenyushanxialinzhong,biqiyihongyuan、xiaoxiangguandenggengweipianyuanpijing,yugechugejue。jishishihuangfeijialin,doushiqianbeidizitai,huangluntaren。kejianlongcuianyiqigongfengpusadeshenshengkongjian,shideshisuquanweidaociyedoudadaquzun,fanguolaijiayiqianjiu,miaoyujiugengwuxuyayigexingle。

bujinruci,miaoyuyifangmianshoudaodangquanzhehepingbeidebaoyudaiyudengrendeliyuyubaorong,jishiyuanzhongqitaderenweibibatakanzaiyanli,zheiyetongyangfahuizongrongdezuoyong。

zheizhongfeiwozuleidelandelihui,ruyihongyuannvbimendebuyiweiyi,shidemiaoyudetuwuzuofengwangwangbeiqingqingdaiguo,shiweilingyigeshijiedeouranganrao,buzhirenzhendihuiying,yexiaomilechongtudejihui,ruciyilaibianxingtongxiaojidigulimiaoyudezuofeng,gengziyoudihuozaizijideshijieli。

zhuangzicengzai《xiaoyaoyou》zhongshuodao,“xiaozhibujidazhi,xiaonianbujidanian”,ermiaoyuziyuwei“jiren”、“jianwairen”wuyishiyizhong“xiaozhi”debiaoxian。tadaiyoucongmingrendezhanzhanzixi,quemeiyouzhizhedehongdashenchen,guzheyuziwodeyouyuegan,erquefachaoyuegerendekuanguang。guigenjiudi,rendelvxingrenzhendouzhinengshizhuangzisuoxiedexiaoniaodeziyishizhi,youxiaocaierweijianjunzizhidadao。ruobuxiangzhizuoxiaoniao,haishishaolvxingrenzhendehao。

ruguochaoyueyi“geren”weihexindesikaokuangjia,bixushuo,rendewuxianxingshijianlizai“chaoyuegeren”shangde。wulunshirujiajingyou“zhengxin、chengyi、xiushen、qijia、 zhiguo、pingtianxia”degongfu,erdadaoneishengwaiwangdejingjie,yincichangyan“wuyi、wubi、wugu、wuwo”(《lunyu·zihan》);huofojiatouguoduanshechulidexiuwei,ru《dachengqixinlun》suoyun:“yiqiexiezhi,jieyiwojian,ruoliyuwo,zewuxiezhi。”pochu“renwogongzhong,wangdashouxiao”dexianni,yizhuiqiu“shenxinxiangli,lishijuru,zehewangerbushi”dechushi;haishidaojiayetongyangjie“wusangwo”dexinzhaizuowang,yizhenjiqiwuxiaoyaodejingshenziyou,wubukejianrenhe yizhonghongdarengedesuzao,doubixucongchaoyueziwokaishi,eryuanyuanduanlineigetian rande、xueqixingqingde、jiaodicengcide“wo”。

bianji | shangui huanghong

观点参考资料

《daguanhonglou·3》

zuozhe: oulijuan

chubanshe: beijingdaxuechubanshe

fubiaoti: oulijuanjianghongloumeng(quanerjuan)

yuanzuoming: daguanhonglou(zhengjinchaijuan)

chubannian: 2018-8-1

congshu: daguanhonglou

xiangguan:

上海弄堂的小女儿情态,就叫王琦瑶《王琦瑶的光芒》苏童一部优秀小说里的主人公应该是一盏灯,不仅照亮自己的面目,也要起到路灯的作用,给别的人物做向导,指引他们的来路,也要起到更大的探照灯的作用,给整部小说提供空间照明。从亮度和色彩上看,《长恨歌》读起来忽明忽暗,那是因为小说里的主人公王琦瑶很像是一盏灯,在从1946 年到1985 年这段漫长的时间段里,这盏灯忽明忽暗的,社会现实的变化很像一种不稳定的电压,导致这盏灯的灯光光源的不稳定,尽管这一束持续四十年的灯光不足以照亮上海的夜空,甚至不能完全照亮小布尔乔亚的狭窄地界,但对于王琦瑶的世界来说,这盏灯是一个完美的光源。王..

哲学和狗狗能扯上什么关系?活泼可爱的狗狗看起来和严肃枯燥的哲学风马牛不相及,但哲学中的“犬儒主义”便来自于狗。热爱狗狗的哲学博士安东尼·麦高恩决定在遛狗的同时好好给它讲讲哲学,《和狗狗的十二次哲学漫步》一书便由此而来。首先麦高恩需要说服自己的狗狗——学哲学是狗狗的优良传统。原作者|[英]安东尼·麦高恩摘编丨肖舒妍《和狗狗的十二次哲学漫步》作者: [英]安东尼·麦高恩译者: 王喆版本: 未读丨天津人民出版社,2020年11月我有一只狗,叫孟弟,是只邋遢的马尔济斯犬。孟弟看起来就像一朵不称职的白云掉到了地上,还在烂泥里打了会儿滚。他的眼睛是黑的,眼神难以捉摸,鼻子是黑..

《人的疆域》:在片段中开拓的精神世界英裔德语作家卡内蒂被视为20世纪第一位文学大师。他的思想成就辐射了文学、政治、哲学等领域。《人的疆域》是他1942年至1985年间的笔记合集,包括《人的疆域》《钟表的秘密心脏》《苍蝇的痛苦》《汉普斯特德补遗》。在笔记中卡内蒂扩展了自我的精神体验,对小说、生与死、艺术历史、当时的政治、伦理学等都有涉及。这些碎片式的笔记,组合成一幅完整的道德地图,而卡内蒂在其中寻找着人类灵魂的真实与脆弱。它所回应的问题既是空旷的,也是永恒的,因为人类的困境总是如车轮般反复循环。如果说,意识到虚无的本质是作家们的立脚点,那由此诞生的思考则是一条由智慧与勇气..

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